At COP 15 in Copenhagen in 2009, it was hoped that a new legally binding agreement would be reached in line with the Kyoto Protocol. Although the meeting did not live up to these expectations, the Copenhagen agreement notably recognized the need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. If action is to be taken in Australia, including the revision of carbon prices, this must be based on strong international agreement and public support. The latter has continued to grow in Australia, while the former is increasingly likely in Paris. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    All 197 UNFCCC members have signed or joined. Turnbull has reaffirmed Australia`s support for the Paris agreement since President Donald Trump announced in June 2017 that the United States would withdraw. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  In an international climate agreement, the Paris Agreement also states, for the first time, that we must “continue efforts” to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius (Article 2).
In Paris, the IPCC was invited to present a new special report (known as SR1.5) in 2018 on the effects of global warming of 1.5oC above pre-industrial levels. In addition, the parties are working to improve global greenhouse gas emissions “as soon as possible” (Article 4). Tony Abbott, the prime minister who signed the Paris Agreement in Australia before losing the Liberals` lead in 2015, says Australia must withdraw from the treaty to “end the obsession with emissions, which is at the heart of our power crisis.” In a sharp escalation of his campaign against the national energy guarantee and in a sharp political attack on Malcolm Turnbull, Abbott used a speech to a group of climate sceptics on Tuesday night to say he would not have signed the Paris Treaty if he had known the United States would withdraw from the agreement. As Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull prepares to travel to Paris for the COP climate change conference, there are signs he sees climate diplomacy and the international climate change agreement as the best way to sell climate policies to conservative dissidents in his own country. In December 2015, the parties to the Un Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted the Paris Agreement: a pioneering agreement to combat climate change and measures to move their economies towards a sustainable, low-carbon future. The United States formally withdrew from the Paris climate agreement last week, but Biden promised to re-enter the Paris Pact and commit to a net zero emission level by 2050. That is also why the Paris Agreement is so important to Turnbull`s government and to climate policy in Australia.